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What is Illumination?
In Arabic, it means 'jewellery' and starry. It is also one of the most widely used traditional art and it contains all kind of decorations. The old call it 'hiisni hat' The hoops that are only done with jewellery are called illumination hoops. The artist who does illumination is called "mùzehhip". Shortly, In Arabic language, the illumination means jewellery and starry, not only expresses the works done with golden gilding but also the works done with paints are named in this way. The similar work done with gold is called 'halkâri'.
The origin of illumination dates back to middle Asia, where Turks firstly came out on the history scene. It is understood the very early best illumination works were the ones that were seen in the Holy books and made by the Turkish illumination artists. This is a very common art in the Muslim World. It was brought to Anatolia by Seljuks, and it reached its the highest peak in the Ottoman Empire.
The Turkish artists became the first leaders of this art by focusing all their strength on embellishment. They decided to make it sure the models they used had to be firmly put into definite rules. The most important reason of the models that are used in Turkish embellishment can be seen as the restrictions found in picture and statues in Islamic Religion.
The motifs that are used in the illumination designs are the shapes of the plants and animals in the nature. It is also the widely used motif in Rumi and architectural embellishment including the animal fiqures. Starting from the 16th century, architecture has freed from this style. In the 16th century, with Karameni, the garden flowers meet with the Turkish embellishment art. During the Magnificent Siileyman, very many progresses begin to appear in all the embellishing designs. In the 18th century, In the Ottomans the illumination art starts to change. Barok and Rococo motifs are used instead of the classical motifs. In the 19th century, the Western art approaches surround all kind of art illuminations. For instance, the flowers motifs are used in classic periods, vases, roses.
When having a look at in the hand writing books, the illumination kinds are varied in zahriye pages, headings, the headlines of surahs, the hatime pages, and the stops among the verses, and also prostration, fascicle, sect, asjr flowers. While doing this art Mùzehhip bores the lines in the shape of full stop.
When the perforated paper is put away, the motif appears on the ground which will be practiced. The motif is become thin layer by beating and crashed with Arab gum and the jewellery mixed with coating is filled with the brush and then gliding decoration starts. As well as jewellery, soil paintings were used formerly and then synthetic paintings were used. Illumination lost its value with the widespread of the western works. Today it is mostly seen in holly books. The Turkish illumination thanks to Muhsin Demironat, Rikkat Kunt, Ord. Prof. Suheyl Unver. This art has been adopting today's conditions having the understanding and memories of the respected personalities mentioned above.
Istanbul Büyük Sehir Belediyesi, Ismek El Sanatlari Albümü, Ismek Yayin 2008
|Fee:||Monthly 60,- euros p.p.|
|Location:||Roumi Art Institute, Alkmaardermeer 41, Rotterdam|